Сложное подлежащее состоит: из подлежащего предложения и инфинитива с зависимыми словами. Подлежащее становится подлежащим, а инфинитив образует сказуемое, вместе они образуют придаточное предложение, а сказуемое обычно выносится вперед и образует главное предложение.
Например: The method is reported to give good results. - Сообщается, что этот метод дает хорошие результаты.
Сказуемое может быть выражено:
a) глаголом в Passive Voice: to say, to know, to suppose, to think, to consider, to report и т.д.
He is known to work at a laboratory.–Известно, что он работает в лаборатории.
б) глаголом в Active Voice: to seem, to appear «oказаться», to prove, to turn out «оказаться», to happen, to chance «случайно оказаться»:
The soil proved to be rich in minerals.– Оказалось, что почва богата минералами.
в) сочетаниями: to be likely «вероятно», «возможно»; to be unlikely «маловероятно»; to be sure, to be certain «несомненно», «обязательно»:
Water is likely to be present on Mars. – Возможно, что на Марсе есть вода.
Также предложения с субъектным инфинитивным оборотом можно переводить простым предложением, употребляя неопределенно-личный оборот как вводное предложение.
Например: Any substance or material is known to consist of billions of atoms and molecules. - Любое вещество или материал, как известно, состоит из миллиардов атомов и молекул.
Раскройте скобки, употребляя требующуюся форму инфинитива
1. He seems (to read) a lot. 2.
He seems (to read) now.
3. He seems (to read) all the books in the library.
4. We expect (to be) back in two days.
5. We expected (to help) by the teacher.
6. I am sorry (to break) your pen.
7. The children seem (to play) since morning.
8. I want (to take) you to the concert.
9. She hoped (to help) by her friends.
10. I hope (to see) you soon.
Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на сложное подлежащее.
1. Many books are known to be published in our country every year.
2. His invention is considered to be of great importance.
3. For a long time the atom was thought to be indivisible.
4. He was said to be one of the most promising nuclear physicists.
5. She appeared to be an excellent actress.
6. This work seems to take much time.
7. The percentage of carbon in this steel turned out to be low.
8. They are sure to acknowledge your talent.
9. The article is likely to appear in the next issue of the journal.
10. She is not likely to change her opinion.
Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя сложное подлежащее.
E.g.: It is believed that the poem was written by Byron. – The poem is believed to have been written by Byron.
1. People consider the climate there to be very healthful.
2. It is expected that the performance will be a success.
3. It is said that the book is popular with both old and young.
4. It was supposed that the crops would be rich that year.
5. It was reported that five ships were missed after the battle.
6. It appeared that he was losing patience.
7. It happened that I was present at the opening session.
8. It turned out that my prediction was correct.
9. It seems they know all about it.
10. It seems they have heard all about it.
Раскройте скобки, употребляя требующуюся форму инфинитива. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива.
1. I consider myself lucky (to be) to that famous exhibition and (to see) so many wonderful paintings.
2. He seems (to know) French very well: he is said (to spend) his youth in Paris.
3. You seem (to look) for trouble.
4. I heard the door of the entrance hall (to open) and (to close) softly.
5. The article is likely (to appear) in the next issue of the journal.
6. He is sure (to tell) me all about this even I don’t ask him.
7. It seemed (to snow) heavily since early morning: the ground was covered with a deep layer of snow.
8. He began writing books not because he wanted (to earn) a living. He wanted (to read) and not (to forget).
9. Irving turned out (to be) a long, pale-faced fellow.
10. I felt Nick (to put) his hand on my shoulder.
11. Soon we found that there was another complicated problem (to consider).
12. Here are some articles (to translate) for tomorrow.
13. Jane remembered (to tell) a lot about Mr. Rochester.
14. I am very sorry (to add) some more trouble by what I have told you.
15. (To play) chess was his greatest pleasure.
16. Isn’t it natural that we like (to scold)?
17. I am sorry (to spoil) your mood.
18. I remembered (to move – растрогаться) by the scene I witnessed.
19. She was sorry (to miss) the beginning of the concert.
20. I should like him (to say) it to my face.