Conditional sentences (Условные предложения)
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Тип Придаточное предложение (условие) Главное предложение Пример Перевод
1 . Реальное условие,  относящееся к настоящему, будущему или  прошедшему  времени Present Simple  V/Vs Future Simple shall/will + V If I have money, I will buy a  car. 
If the weather is fine, we will go for a walk.
Если у меня будут деньги, я куплю машину.
Если погода будет хорошая, мы пойдем гулять.
2. Нереальное или маловероятное условие, относящееся к настоящему или будущему времени Past Simple 2fV
Глагол to be будет иметь форму множественного числа
Future-in-the Past Simple would/should/ could/might + V If the weather was fine, I went for a walk.
If I were a princess, I would live in a palace.
If I had money, I would buy a car.
Если погода была хорошей, мы ходили гулять.
Если бы я была принцессой, я бы жила во дворце.
Если бы у меня были деньги, я бы купил машину.
3. Нереальное  условие,  относящееся к  прошлому  времени Past  Perfect had + 3fV Future-in-the Past Perfect would/should/could/might + have + 3fV If I had had money last year, I would have bought a car. Если бы у меня были  деньги в прошлом году, я бы купил машину.

Бессоюзные условные предложения

Если условные (придаточные) предложения содержат глаголы had, were, could, should, то возможно бессоюзная связь главного и придаточного предложений. В этом случае эти глаголы ставятся перед подлежащим, союз if опускается. Такой порядок слов называется инверсией.
Перевод таких предложений следует начинать с союза «если бы».
E.g. Had he a dictionary, he could translate the text. – Если бы у него был словарь, он смог бы перевести текст.
Should he come, ask him to wait. – Если он придет, попросите его подождать.

Условные предложения. Сослагательное наклонение после "I wish”

Условные предложения I типа

If I
Если я
live in the country
буду жить за городом,
find my book
найду свою книгу
I shall
Я буду
bathe every day.
купаться каждый день.
be very glad.
очень рад.

Условные предложения II типа

I wish I were
If I were
Если бы я был
at the camp в лагере
a scientist ученым
I should
я бы
have a very good time.
хорошо проводил время.
invent a time machine.
изобрел машину времени.

Условные предложения III типа

I wish I had
Если бы я был
If I had
Если бы я был
translated the article yesterday
перевел статью.
learned my lesson
выучил урок
I should have
Я бы
found out all about this discovery.
узнал бы все об этом открытии.
got a good mark.
получил бы хорошую отметку.

Упражнение 1.
Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения.
1. I’ll ask Tom if I see him today.
2. We would go to the party if we had time tomorrow.
3. She would pass her exam next month if she worked harder.
4. She would be happy if she met him at the party next Sunday.
5. We’ll go nowhere tomorrow if it rains.
6. If she knew his phone number, she would call him next week.
7. If  J. London had not learned life from his own experience, he could not have written his great works.
8. Had the science of radio not been developed so rapidly, we should not have got such remarkable  changes in the technique today.
9. Had he been a young man, he would have taken part in the expedition.
10. If you had applied this method, you would have got better results.

Упражнение 2.
Поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужную форму
1. The trains all (stop) … if it snowed heavily.
2. If you (go out) … in cold weather without a coat, you would catch a cold.
3. If I saw a cheap second- hand car, I (buy) … it.
4. If you ate well and exercised regularly, you (live) … 100 years.
5. You would have had stomach ache if you (eat) … too much of that cake.
6. If it (rain) … this afternoon, I (take)… my umbrella.
7. If you did not drive carefully, you (have) … an accident.
8. If you (study) … for a higher qualification, you (get) … a better job next year.
9. If you sent the letter by first class mail, it (get) … there the following day.
10. If the weather is fine, we (go) for a picnic.

Упражнение 3.
Завершите следующие предложения.
1. I’ll ask him to lend me the money (если я вижу его).
2. You’ll be late (если не поедете на автобусе).
3. Will you help me (если мне нужна будет ваша помощь)?
4. I’d lend you the money (если бы у меня были деньги).
5. If I had her address (я бы дал вам его).
6. If they had gone by car, (они бы сэкономили время).
7.  If my mother won a million pounds, (она бы потратила их очень быстро).
8. If I had more time, (я бы прочитал больше книг).
9. (если я буду чувствовать себя хорошо), I’ll be in class tomorrow.
10. He would have come to the party last Sunday (если бы его пригласили).

Упражнение 4.
Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в соответствующей форме.
1. If I (to have) this rare book, I should gladly lend it to you.
2. The dish would have been much more tasty if she (to be) a better cook.
3. He never (to phone) you if I hadn’t reminded him to do that.
4. Your brother (to become) much stronger if he took cold baths regularly.
5. If he (to be) more courageous, he would not be afraid.
6. If the fisherman had been less patient, he (not to catch) so much fish.
7. If you (to put) the ice-cream into the refrigerator, it would not have melted.
8. If I (to know) the result now, I would phone her immediately.
9. If you had let me know yesterday, I (to bring) you my book.
10. If it (to snow), the children will play snowballs.

Упражнение 5.
Образуйте условные предложения.
Ex.g.: The weather is not fine and we  won’t go for a walk. – If the weather is  fine, we will go for a walk”.
1. He is busy and does not come. If…
2. The girl did not study well last year and received bad marks. If…
3. He broke his bicycle and so he did not go to the country. If…
4.He speaks English badly: he has no practice. If…
5. I had a bad headache yesterday, that’s why I did not come to see you. If…
6. The ship was sailing near the coast, that’s why it struck a rock. If…
7. He was not in town, therefore he was not present at our meeting. If…
8. The pavement was so slippery that I fell and hurt my leg. If…
9. The sea is rough, and we cannot sail to the island. If …
10. They made a fire, and the frightened wolves ran away. If …  

Упражнение 6.
Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в соответствующей форме сослагательного наклонения после "I wish”.
1. The unfortunate pupil wishes he (not to forget) to learn the rule.
2. I wish I (to have) a season ticket to the Philharmonic next winter.
3. I wish I (to consult) the teacher when I first felt that mathematics was too difficult for me.
4. I love sunny weather. I wish it (to be) warm and fine all the year round.
5. I wish I (not to lend) Nick my watch: he has broken it.
6. I wish you (to send) word as soon as you arrive.
7. I wish I (not to have) to do my homework every day.
8. I wish you (to go) skiing with me yesterday: I had such a good time!
9. I wish I (to know) Spanish.
10. I wish I (not to drink) so much coffee in the evening: I could not sleep half the night.

Упражнение 7
Переведите на английский язык.
1. Если бы он не был так близорук (short-sighted), он бы узнал меня вчера в театре.
2. Она здорова. Если бы она была больна, ее брат сказал бы мне об этом вчера.
3. Вы бы много знали, если бы регулярно читали этот журнал.
4. Если бы я узнала об этом раньше, то не сидела бы сейчас дома.
5. Если бы мои родители были богаты, они бы уже давно купили мне машину.
6. Она очень талантлива. Хорошо бы родители купили ей пианино. Если она начнет играть сейчас, она будет выдающимся (distinguished) музыкантом.
7. Если бы я знал французский, я бы уже давно поговорил с ней.
8. Если бы я знал немецкий язык, я бы читал Гете в оригинале (in the original).
9. Если бы я жил близко, я бы чаще (more often) заходил к вам.
10. Если бы вы не прервали (to interrupt) нас вчера, мы бы закончили работу в срок.

Упражнение 8.
Допишите следующие предложения.
1. You would know English better if …
2. I should have left Moscow yesterday if …
3. If I were you, …
4. If  I had known that it was going to rain, …
5. I shall go for a walk, if …
6. I should lend you my textbook if …
7. If we had bought the tickets, …
8. If they were here, …
9. We should be glad if …
10. If he were younger, …

Упражнение 9.
Опустите союз в следующих условных предложениях, сделав соответствующие изменения в предложении.
Ex.g.: If  we had gone there later, we would have seen them. – Had we gone there later, we would have seen them». 
1. If I had time, I should study French.
2. If you should find them, kindly let me know.
3. If they had called at the office yesterday, they would have found me there.
4. If I had seen him yesterday, I should have told him about it.
5. If he were here I should speak to him.
6. If he were in town, he would help us.
7. If he should come, tell him to wait.
8. If I had enough money, I would travel.
9. If I were you, I should go there immediately.
10. If I were in his place, I should refuse.