The infinitive (Инфинитив)
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Инфинитив, его формы и функции в предложении

Forms of infinitive (Формы инфинитива)
Actions, expressed the forms of infinitive (Действия, выражаемые формами инфинитива)
Functions of infinitive (Функции инфинитива)
Complex Object (Объектный инфинитивный оборот )
Complex Subject (Субъектный инфинитивный оборот)

Инфинитив употребляется без частицы ‘to’ после:

- модальных глаголов (can, could, may, might, must, should, would, need);
- глаголов to let и to make (в значении «заставлять, принуждать»);
- в сложном дополнениее после глаголов чувственного восприятия (to see, to hear, to feel, to watch, to observe, to notice);
- выражений: I would rather, You would better. (I’d rather), (You’d better).

Упражнение 1.
Укажите, какой формой инфинитива можно выразить действие выделенного глагола:
1. Кажется, я сделал небольшую ошибку в расчетах.
a) to make
b) to be made
c) to have made
d) to be making
2. Приятно сидеть здесь с вами.
a) to sit
b) to be sitting
c) to have been sitting
d) to have sat
3. Я не ожидаю, что меня пригласят на свадьбу.
a) to invite
b) to have been invited
c) to be inviting
d) to be invited
4. Извините, что я не пришел вовремя.
a) to come
b) to have come
c) to be coming
d) to be come
5. Где Джон? – По-моему, он работает в саду.
a) to have been working
b) to work
c) to be working
d) to have worked
6. Кажется, он ждет вас с утра.
a) to wait
b) to be waiting
c) to have been waiting
d) to have waited
7. Говорят, что он знает английский лучше немецкого.
a) to have known
b) to be known
c) to know
d) to have been known
8. Информация, которая должна быть использована в вашем отчете, может быть получена в нашем офисе.
a) to use
b) to have used
c) to have been used
d) to be used
9. Он пришел сюда, чтобы поговорить со мной.
a) to be speaking
b) to speak
c) to have been speaking
d) to have spoken
10. Вероятно, он опоздал на поезд.
a) to miss
b) to have been missing
c) to be missing
d) to have missed

Упражнение 2.
Вставьте частицу to перед инфинитивом, где необходимо:
1. I’d like … dance.
2. She made me … repeat my words several times.
3. She did not let her mother … go away.
4. I like … play the guitar.
5. My brother can … speak French.
6. We had … put on our overcoats because it was cold.
7. They wanted … cross the river.
8. May I … use your telephone?
9. I would rather … stay at home today.
10. I think I shall be able … solve this problem.

Упражнение 3.
Укажите, какие действия обозначают различные формы инфинитива, и определите их залог:
1. I’m sorry not to have come on Thursday ( = that I didn’t come on Thursday).
2. He seems to have missed the train.
3. He seems to have been sitting here all day.
4. She ought to be told about it.
5. I didn’t expect to be invited.
6. Nothing seems to have been forgotten.
7. He seems to be smoking a lot.
8. I decided not to become an engineer.
9. It’s nice to be sitting here with you.
10. He came here to speak to me, not to you.
a) действие, предшествовавшее действию глагола сказуемого;
b) действие в его развитии, происходящее одновременно с действием глагола-сказуемого;
c) действие, одновременное с действием глагола-сказуемого;
d) действие, безотносительно к моменту его совершения;
e) действие, относящееся к будущему;
f) длительное действие, совершавшееся в течение отрезка времени, пред-шествовавшего действию глагола-сказуемого;
g) активный залог;
h) пассивный залог.

Упражнение 4.
Переведите предложения с инфинитивом в разных функциях:
а) «То» -формы (инфинитив) в функции подлежащего
1. It is difficult to solve this problem.
2. It is easy to make mistakes.
3. It was impossible to explain what I meant.
4. It was difficult to sell my car.
5. To answer the question is not easy.
6. To find that it was only a joke greatly disappoited us.
7. To restore the ruined sculpture was impossible.
8. To ask you a few questions on the matter is my duty.
9. Is it possible to get a ticket for tomorrow? 1
0. To talk of it now is needless.

b) «То» – форма в функции именной части составного именного сказуемого
1. Your task is to become a good engineer.
2. Your duty was to inform me about it immediately.
3. Our plan was to finish the work before their arrival.
4. Your next task is to check up the results of the observations.
5. The last thing I meant was to offend you.
6. What I have come for is to wish you every success and congratulate you.
7. The only thing that could do you good is to take a long rest.
8. The next move he had made was to consult an experienced lawyer.
9. The best thing to do now is to see what turn things will take.

с)“To” – форма как часть составного глагольного сказуемого
1. He must have sold his piano.
2. Could he speak English in childhood?
3. Ann had to go to the dentist.
4. You may take this book if you want.
5. I had to take a taxi; otherwise I should have missed the train.
6. They won’t be able to buy anything but lemonade on the train.
7. These carpets are to be cleaned as soon as possible.
8. We were to go to the cinema that afternoon.
9. Can your mother drive a car?
10. He could swim very well when he was young.

d) “To” – формы (инфинитив) в функции прямого дополнения
1. He asked me to wait a little.
2. I told him to go there.
3. They demanded to be shown all the documents.
4. We asked to be given convincing evidence.
5. I want to be helped.
6. The engineer advised them to use new methods of work.
7. We asked the guests to come at 7 o’clock.
8. Who told you to do this work?

e) “To” – формы (инфинитив) в функции определения
1. The children have a good garden to play in.
2.Give me a knife to cut the bread with.
3. I’m sure he will be the first to come to the meeting.
4. He needed a place to live in.
5.Can you give me some work to do?
6. Have you anything to cure a bad cold?
7. I need a box to hold my chessmen.
8. He looked at the shelves of books to be read and understood.
9. This is a mineral to be found only in this part of the country.
10. There are so many letters to be answered.

f) “To”-формы (инфинитив) в функции обстоятельства цели или следствия
1. I’ve come here to have a talk with you.
2. To perfect his knowledge of English he has gone to England.
3. I shall go on working late today so as to be free tomorrow.
4. To earn much money my brother needed this job.
5. He stopped for a minute to rest.
6. I got up early (in order) to have time to pack.
7. I’m starting now, in order not to miss the beginning of the concert.
8. The air must be compressed to occupy a smaller volume.
9. To be properly understood this rule is to be explained once more.
10. He went to Germany to meet his friends whom he had not seen for many years.